Totally 13.5 million tons of pasta was produced in 2013 in the world. It seems that Italy leads with a production of 3,326 million tons. The highest production amount in 2011 among the EU countries belongs to Germany with 731 thousand tons. The highest consumption amount belongs to Italy with 618 thousand tons and England with 611 thousand tons among the EU countries. World bakery products market also shows a compound growth rate of 3.9% between 2001 and 2010.
Pasta is one of the most important foods in the world in terms of both its nutritional value and production volume. Pasta which is consumed in different ways in each culture faces a demand rate which has been increasing over the years. Unsurprising sales diagram for bread can be resulted from the fact that it has been consumed daily as a basic product in nearly every household for ages. As a result of urbanization and worldwide increase of working population, the growth of out-of-home consumption and increased demand on instant and nutritious products are the main reasons of the continuous increase of bakery products. Biscuit, which used to be a luxury consumption material once, has also become a food product which can be consumed by everybody today. However, while per capita biscuit consumption is 13-15 kg in Europe, it is still around 5-6 kg in Turkey. For this reason, biscuit producers diversify their production to meet the demands of target consumers with varieties such as diet biscuits for diabetics, formula biscuits for children, special breakfast biscuits, nutritive whole-wheat, oat or rye biscuits that are used for losing weight.
WORLD PASTA MARKET
Pasta production stopped being dependent on the climate as a result of some technological developments. For this reason, the production which can be done only in the areas where wheat was produced has now spread to different geographies. According to the data of International Pasta Organization (IPO), totally, 13.5 million tons of pasta were produced globally in 2013. Total production amount made by Italy, USA, Brazil, Russia and Turkey forms the majority of world’s pasta production. When we have a look at the production amounts of such countries, we see that Italy leads with 3.3 million tons in 2013. USA follows Italy which is the biggest pasta producer in the world with 2 million tons. Brazil which ranks third produced around 1.2 million tons of pasta. Russia follows Brazil with 1 million tons. Turkey, which ranks 5th in the world pasta production, increased its production amount of 606 thousand tons in 2010 to 1 million tons in 2013.
According to the data of International Pasta Organization (IPO) dated 2013, the country which has the highest consumption rate in pasta consumption is Italy which is also the leader producer. Per capita pasta consumption in Italy is 26 kg. Venezuela follows Italy with 13.2 kg, Tunisia with 11.9 kg, Greece 10.6 kg and Switzerland with 9.2 kg. Per capita pasta consumption in Turkey is 6.6 kg as well.
When total pasta production by countries is considered, it seems that the biggest consumer country is USA with 2.7 thousand tons. Italy follows USA with 1.5 million tons, Brazil with nearly 1.2 million tons, Russia with 1.1 million tons and Germany with 650 thousand tons. Turkey’s consumption amount in 2013 was 492 thousand tons.
According to data of IPO, the total value of world pasta imports is 3.059 billion euros. This value which is an equivalent of 2.9 million tons of pasta import has increased a little through the increase in the import amounts in 2011. In 2011, the world pasta import was recorded as 3.2 million tons and this equals to 3.345 billion euros. In 2012, the world pasta import was 3.062 million tons. In the same period, the value equivalent of pasta import was 3.651 billion euros.
USA, Germany and French seem to have the leading positions in 2012 world pasta import. USA with its 490 million euro and 360 thousand tons of pasta import in 2012 is followed by Germany with 459 million euro and 423 thousand tons in terms of value. While Germany is better by means of quantity, USA leads by means of value when this data is considered. The 2012 pasta import of France is 340 thousand tons. France which reached to an import value of 397 million euros follows USA and Germany closely. Japan follows France with 185 thousand tons and 260 million euros and England with 176 thousand tons and 213 million euro, Canada follows with 119 thousand tons and 161 million euros.
According to World Trade Atlas data used by IPO, pasta export was around 3.3 million tons in 2010. The price equivalence of such quantity is 3,487 million euros. World pasta export which showed an increase in 2011 was 3.5 million tons and it was equal to 3,820 million euros. In 2012, there was an increase in export amounts again and it was recorded as 3.7 million tons. The equivalent value of pasta export quantity in 2012 is 4,158 million euros. Moving through the reported data causes world pasta import and export to be seen differently. For this reason, the real figures are estimated to be a little more than these figures.
Italy ranks first in world pasta export. Italy exported 1.8 million tons of pasta in 2012. The biggest exporter after Italy is Turkey. The amount of the export which was 436 thousand tons in 2012, has an equivalence of value about 241 million Euros. In 2012, Turkey is followed by Belgium with 136 thousand tons, USA with 133 thousand tons and China with 108 thousand tons of export quantity.
WORLD BISCUITS MARKET
EU countries (especially England, Germany, Belgium, Italy, France, Spain and Netherland) and Canada stand out in world biscuit production and export. According to data of Association of Chocolate, Biscuit and Confectionery Industries of Europe (CAOBISCO), total biscuit production of EU, Switzerland and Japan was recorded as 4 million 463 thousand tons in 2011. This amount points a decrease of 2.7% compared to the previous year and an increase of 1% in the 5-year period between 2006 and 2011.
Among the EU countries, the highest production amount in 2011 belongs to Germany with 731 thousand tons. Italy with 655 thousand tons, England with 562 thousand tons, Spain with 447 thousand tons and France with 404 thousand tons follow Germany. In the same period; while the production of Switzerland remained at 47 thousand tons, Japan’s production increased to 242 thousand tons.
World biscuit consumption shows an increase in general terms. However; contrary to many countries in the world, biscuit consumption in EU countries decreased especially between 2009 and 2011. According to CAOBISCO data; biscuit consumption of European Union, which was 4 million 94 thousand tons in 2010, declined to 3 million 909 thousand tons in 2011. On the other hand; Japan’s consumption, which was 261 thousand tons in 2010, reached to 265 thousand tons by increasing approximately 4 thousand tons in 2011.
The highest consumption amount belongs to Italy with 618 thousand tons and England with 611 thousand tons among the EU countries. Germany with 586 thousand tons and France with 573 thousand tons follow Italy and England. In EU, where the average per capita consumption was recorded as 7.8 kg by 2011, per capita consumption decreased by 4.3% between 2010 and 2011 and by 2.6% in the 5-year period between 2006 and 2011. According to CAOBISCO data; Ireland with 21.76 kg, Netherland with 12,86 kg, Italy with 10,40 kg and Belgium with 10,09 kg are on top in per capita biscuit consumption by 2011. England with 9.75 kg, Switzerland with 9.30 kg, Bulgaria, Denmark, France, Spain, Portugal and Slovakia follow those countries with the consumption amounts ranging between 8 and 9 kg.
According to Bakery Products Market Report dated June 2010 and prepared by Central Anatolian Exporters Union General Secretariat, world confectionary market showed value of 25.5 billion dollars (7 million tons) in 2006 and its average annual growth is 2.9 percent on value basis and 2.1 percent on amount basis in the five years’ period between 2002 and 2006. In the said five years’ period, maximum increase rate on both amount and value bases in world confectionary market volume was recorded in 2006 and this increase is 3.3 percent in terms of value and 2.1 percent in terms of amount. In world confectionary market, EU has the biggest share with 50.5 percent. America has 32 percent share and Asia-Pacific countries have 17.5 percent share.
In the study mentioned above, estimates show that world confectionary market will reach to 30.3 billion dollars (8 million tons) in 2011 by maintaining its growth at an average rate of 3.5 percent on value basis and 2.7 percent on amount basis per year during the five years’ period covering 2006-2011 years. However according to another report prepared by Central Anatolian Exporters Union in 2010, world confectionary market reached to 35.2 billion dollars (8 million tons) in 2008 and that was more than the value estimated for 2011. It is estimated that this value has reached 41 billion dollars in 2013.
European Union countries, which are the world’s leading biscuit producers, are the world’s leading biscuit exporters as well. The sweet biscuit export in the world decreased by 7 percent to 5.4 billion dollars in 2009 in comparison to the previous year. It was realized as approximately 6.8 billion dollars by increasing 21% in 2011 in comparison to the previous year. In 2010, Germany became the biggest exporter with 12.2 percent export share and an export value of 660 million dollars. Germany was followed by Belgium with 10.1 percent share, Netherlands with 8.5 percent share, England with 6.3 percent share and France with 6 percent share. In 2011 again Germany, Netherland, Belgium, England and Canada were among the most important exporter countries of the world. 40% of total biscuit export on value basis was realized by those countries in 2011.
The world biscuit import amount decreased by 9% to about 5.4 billion dollars in 2009 in comparison to the previous year. Respectively, USA, France, Germany, England and Belgium had the biggest market shares. The total import share of these 5 countries was 41 %. USA ranks first in biscuit import with 767 million dollars and 14.1 percent market share. USA is followed by France with 9.7 percent, Germany with 6.8 percent, England with 5.8 percent and Belgium with 4.8 percent.
Realized as 6.8 billion dollars in 2011 by increasing 18% compared to the previous year, the most important markets of world biscuit import were again U.S., France, Germany, England and Belgium respectively. Total share of these five countries in the world import in 2011 was 38%.
WORLD BREAD AND BAKERY PRUDUCTS MARKET
Wheat bread is the only food product offering the human being more nutrients than any other food product in the world. Bread which is a source of carbohydrate, protein, Vitamin B and E is increasingly consumed particularly in developed countries. However, it is seen that this demand is mainly on the whole wheat products. The reason is that the population having healthy eating awareness minimalizes the carbohydrate, fat and cholesterol income in their meals and maximizes the complex carbohydrates, dietary fibers and vegetable protein income.
According to the data of The Federation of Bakers representing the bread and bakery products producers in UK, Europe is stated to have a bread market worth nearly 32 million tons in a research made through 27 countries in The European Union in 2010. Average per capita bread consumption amount in EU is reported to be 50 kg. However this amount differs in every country. Although there has been a growth of consumption in Western Europe in 2009 and 2010, the graphic remains more stable in comparison to the other regions of the world. While Germans and Australians consuming annually 80 kg bread are on the top of the bread consumption list of Western Europe, British and İrish people consuming less than 50 kg in a year are at the bottom of the list.
Similarly in USA, the total retail sales amount of bread in 2010 is 21.4 billion dollars. It is specified that there is a growth of 1.6% in retail sales from 2006 to 2010. According to the data of Agriculture and Agri-food Canada (AAFC), Americans prefer packaged bread. Packaged bread has a share of 65% in the bread market. Regarding the data, it is possible to say that the demand on packaged white bread decreased between 2006 and 2011.
Moreover, whole wheat bread sales outnumbered the White bread sales in 2010. The fact that producers diversified their products has a remarkable influence upon this. Following the increased self-awareness on nutrition, the minimization in high fructose corn syrup and sodium, also the production of different bread types by using ethnic ingredients influence the production and consumption graphics of bread.
Also in developing countries, it seems that bread consumption diversifies depending on various factors like dependence of wheat market to the government, the degree of the differences between urban and rural population (food preferences, differences in tendency to processed or unprocessed food) and the rate of income growth especially in China, Southern Asia and Middle East. According to the presentation of Prof. Dr. Hikmet Boyacıoğlu, named Bread and Whole Wheat Bread Consumption in Turkey and presented during the Dissemination of Whole Wheat Bread Symposium in 2012, while bread sales volume in 2005 is approximately 31 million tons, it approached to 37 million tons in 2010. Similarly, sales value of 61 million dollars in 2005 showed an increase of 14 million Dollars until 2010. However, there has been a growth of 18% in packaged products between 2010 and 2011.
According to the data of the United Nations, in comparison to the previous year, an increase of 17.4% in imported bakery products has been recorded in 2008. Accordingly, total import volume of 16,454 million tons in 2006 reached to 17,713 million tons in 2008. Similarly, the unit price per ton which is 1,966 dollars increased to 2,566 dollars in 2008. The products like biscuit and cake have the biggest share with their import value of 22,770 billion dollars. Mixture, dough and infant formulas come right after with the import value of 11 billion dollars. The notable increase in number of working women in comparison to previous years and growing importance of practical options increased the need for infant formula.
The import share of EU countries in the bakery products market is quite large. 27 EU countries’ total value of import in 2006 is 16.6 billion dollars. In 2008, this amount increased to 23.5 billion dollars. Also the total share of EU countries in the market is 51.59%.
According to the data of Bakery Products Sector Report; world bakery products market showed a compound growth rate of 3.9% between 2001 and 2010. In bakery products market where Europe is dominant, Asia and Pacific area’s growth rate is 6.93%. This rapid growth is a sign of the fact that the potential in Asia and Pacific area as an emerging market catch the attention.